Jet Stream Activity in Climate Models

Adapted from: Lenart, M. Basics of Regional Models. (September 14, 2008). Southwest Climate Change Network

Jet streams high in the atmosphere direct where moisture lands on the surface. Global climate models (GCMs) generally do a good job at simulating jet stream activity, especially in the mid-latitudes – roughly 40 to 70 degrees north of the equator. Indeed, this is considered one of their strengths. Even so, potential problems include inadequacies where the mid-latitudes interact with the tropics (Bader et al. …

How Does the Monsoon Affect Arizona?

Contents


Regional Differences: The North American Monsoon System


previous

Adapted from: Michael Crimmins.

How Does the Monsoon Work?

Regional Differences: The North American Monsoon System


Adapted from: Michael Crimmins. 2006. Arizona and the North American Monsoon System. University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Science. Publication No. az1417.

How Does the Monsoon Work?

The official definition for the word “monsoon” is a persistent surface windflow pattern caused by differential heating that shifts direction from one season to another (Greer 1996). The most intensively studied monsoon on Earth is the Indian, or South Asian, monsoon where …

Monsoon Season in North America

Regional Differences: The North American Monsoon System


Adapted from: Michael Crimmins. 2006. Arizona and the North American Monsoon System. University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Science. Publication No. az1417.

Monsoon Season in North America

The circulation features that bring monsoonal moisture into the southwest United States are typically in place by late June or early July and persist through mid- to late September. The arrival of substantial monsoon moisture varies greatly from year to year. This …

The North American Monsoon System

Regional Differences: The North American Monsoon System

Adapted from: Michael Crimmins. 2006. Arizona and the North American Monsoon System. University of Arizona College of Agriculture and Life Science. Publication No. az1417.

The southwestern United States receives most of its annual precipitation in two distinct seasons, winter and summer. Winter precipitation is produced by large-scale surface low-pressure systems that traverse the southwest, drawing in moisture from the Pacific Ocean and producing widespread rain and snow (Figure 1a). Energy to fuel …

Climate Change Impacts in the Great Plains

Adapted from: Global Climate Impacts in the United States. T.R. Karl, J.M. Mellilo, and T.C. Peterson (eds.). Cambridge University Press, 2009. Available online at USGCRP
The region of the United States that is covered by the Regional Impacts report for the Great Plains from the U.S. Global Climate Research Program.


Over the last few decades, average temperatures have risen throughout the Great Plains, with the largest increases occurring in the winter months and over the northern states. Relatively cold days are becoming less frequent and relatively hot days more frequent.

In the future, temperatures are projected to continue to increase with larger changes under scenarios …

Climate Change Impacts in the Northeastern U.S.

Adapted from: T.R. Karl, J.M. Mellilo, and T.C. Peterson (eds.). Global Climate Impacts in the United States. Cambridge University Press, 2009. Available online at USGCRP
The region of the United States that is covered by report on Regional Impacts from the U.S. Global Climate Research Program.

 

 

 

 

Climate change in the Northeast has meant hotter temperatures, more heavy rains, and less lake ice and snow cover. Northeast annual average temperature has increased by 2 degrees Fahrenheit since 1970, with winter temperatures rising twice this much. The warming has resulted in more frequent unusually hot days and a longer growing season. The region …

Climate Change Impacts in the Southeastern U.S.

Adapted from:Global Climate Impacts in the United States. T.R. Karl, J.M. Mellilo, and T.C. Peterson (eds.). Cambridge University Press, 2009. Available online at USGCRP
The region of the United States that is covered by report on Regional Impacts for the Southeastern United States from the U.S. Global Climate Research Program.

 

 

The Southeast region serves as an example of how rising temperatures can be associated with both increased drought and an increased frequency of downpours and other intense precipitation events. Southeast annual average temperature has risen 2 degrees Fahrenheit since 1970, with the greatest seasonal increase in the winter months. From 1901 to 2008, there was …

Climate Change Impacts in the Northwestern U.S.

Adapted from: Global Climate Impacts in the United States. T.R. Karl, J.M. Mellilo, and T.C. Peterson (eds.). Cambridge University Press, 2009. Available online at USGCRP Regional Climate Change Impacts
The region of the United States that is covered by report on Regional Impacts for the Northwestern United States from the U.S. Global Climate Research Program.


Warming in the Northwest has varied by location, and the ongoing temperature rise brings more risk of wildfire, challenges to native species, increased erosion, and potential water challenges. Annual average temperature over the Northwest region rose about 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit over the past century, with some areas experiencing increases up to …

Climate Change Impacts in the Pacific Islands and the Caribbean

Adapted from: Global Climate Impacts in the United States. T.R. Karl, J.M. Mellilo, and T.C. Peterson (eds.). Cambridge University Press, 2009. Available online at USGCRP Regional Climate Change Impacts
The region of the United States that is covered by report on Regional Impacts for the Pacific Islands by the U.S. Global Climate Research Program.


Climate change presents unique challenges to U.S.-affiliated islands, which include Hawaii, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Small islands are vulnerable to sea-level rise, coastal erosion, extreme weather events, coral reef bleaching, ocean acidification, and contamination of freshwater resources with saltwater. The islands have experienced rising temperatures and sea level in recent decades. …