Water Balance

Adapted from: Mary Nichols. 2007. Chapter 3: Hydrologic Processes in Riparian Areas. In: G. Zaimes (ed). Understanding Arizona’s Riparian Areas. University of Arizona Cooperative Extension. AZ 1432. Available at http://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/natresources/az1432.pdf

Water balance is a method of book keeping used to summarize the amount of water cycling from the atmosphere, across land surfaces, into the ground, through plants, into the ocean, and back the atmosphere. It provides a good framework for understanding hydrologic processes. Water balances can vary year to …

Drought Risk and Tree Planting

Shelterwood planting
Shelterwood planting

The PINEMAP team produced a helpful publication on whether To Plant or Not to Plantwhich includes a checklist of eight items for consideration before planting tree seedlings. The Fact Sheet, produced by the Texas Forest Service and Texas Agrilife Extension Service, refers to Texas, but the process for timber stand drought risk assessment is broadly applicable and not time-limited.  Important considerations before planting include working with a qualified professional, assessing the site quality and soil moisture, …

Webinars on Demand!

If you missed a climate and natural resources webinar of interest, check out the links below. 

ANREP Climate Science Initiative Webinars:

“Extension Leadership with Community Climate Planning Scenarios”

“Benefiting Clientele and Educators through Climate Education Networking”

“Extension Climate Communication in Practice”

“Urban, Rural, and Remote: Extension Climate Adaptation Programs and Practices”

“FloriDays Cutting-Edge Extension”

“The North Coast Alignment Project” and “Delaware’s Climate Change Impact Assessment”

The Role of Universities in Climate Change Education and Research


Archived Climate Webinars

Preventing Forest Tree Illness

pine trees
Root diseases usually thin or fade crowns over a period of years. Photo: Chris Schnepf.

Do not wait to act on insect and disease issues until after you see dead branches. Look for visible symptoms or signs of tree illness and learn how to prevent a favorable environment for organisms that harm trees. It is important to understand that successful methods for minimizing forest insect and disease problems are usually preventative, occurring before problems are noticed. Monitoring your forest for …

Regional Climate Hub Assessment of Climate Change Vulnerability and Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies

General storm damage

USDA’s Regional Climate Hubs were established in February of 2014 to deliver science-based knowledge, practical information, and program support to farmers, ranchers, forest landowners, and resource managers to enable climate-informed decision-making in light of the increased risks and vulnerabilities associated with a changing climate. As part of their function, the Hubs were tasked with providing periodic regional assessments of risk and vulnerability to production sectors and rural economies, building on material provided under the National Climate Assessment conducted through the …

Landowners Can Apply Strategies to Help Forests Adapt to Climate Change

Photo 1: Forest trees get ready for fall on top of Mt. Lemmon in Arizona. Photo credit: Martha Gebhardt.

By Martha Gebhardt, School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona


Forest vulnerability is expected to increase in decades to come, according to a draft of the National Climate Assessment released in January of 2013. The report stated that as temperatures continue to rise, droughts, insect outbreaks, and wildfires would all occur more regularly. The forestry chapter of …

Overview of the Effects of Climatic Variability and Change on Forest Ecosystems of the Southwest United States

The Global Change Research Act of 1990 requires the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) to produce the National Climate Assessment (NCA) for the President and Congress every four years, analyzing the effect of global change on multiple sectors and regions in the United States and projecting major trends forward for up to 100 years. Effects on Climatic Variability and Change on Forest Ecosystems: A Comprehensive Science Synthesis for the U.S. Forest Sector (PNW-GTR-870) serves as the U.S. Forest Service …

Watersheds and Vegetation

Adapted from: Mary Nichols. 2007. Chapter 4: Stream processes in riparian areas. In: G. Zaimes (ed). Understanding Arizona’s Riparian Areas. University of Arizona Cooperative Extension. AZ 1432. Available at http://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/natresources/az1432.pdf
Figure 1. Vegetation found in watersheds can influence channel formation. Trees and fine-stemmed vegetation, such as grasses, influence how water flows, sediment deposition, and channel roughness. Photo by Chris Evans, River to River CWMA. Image courtesy of forestryimages.org.

The relatively dense stands of vegetation found along channels form in response …

Southwest U.S. Climate Assessment

Adapted by Melanie Lenart, University of Arizona, reviewed by Susan E. Moore and Mark A. Megalos, from: Garfin, G., G. Franco, H. Blanco, A. Comrie, P. Gonzalez, T. Piechota, R. Smyth, and R. Waskom, 2014: Ch. 20: Southwest. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, J. M. Melillo, Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 462-486. Accessible online at: http://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/regions/southwest


The hot, dry landscapes that define the Southwest are …